Cairo is the capital and largest city of Egypt With a population of 6.76 million spread over 453 square kilometers. The city's metropolitan area is the largest in the Middle East and the Arab world, and 15th-largest in the world, and is associated with ancient Egypt, as the famous Giza pyramid complex and the ancient city of Memphis are located in its geographical area. Cairo has long been a center of the region's political and cultural life, and is nicknamed "the city of a thousand minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture.
Cairo has the oldest and largest film and music industries in the Arab world, as well as the world's second-oldest institution of higher learning, Al-Azhar University. Many international media, businesses, and organizations have regional headquarters in the city; the Arab League has had its headquarters in Cairo for most of its existence.
Egypt's official languages is Arabic, in additional to English, French, German and Italian.
Time Zone
Egypt is 2 hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).
The Egyptian pound (Genēh) is the currency of Egypt. It is divided into 100 piasters, ersh, or 1,000 millimes. The Egyptian pound is frequently abbreviated as LE or L.E., which stands for livre égyptienne (French for Egyptian pound). E£ and £E are commonly used on the internet.   Euros, dollars and sterling are accepted in Egypt (notes not coins), but your money will go much further if you change it to Egyptian pounds.  The best places to exchange money are the currency exchange shops (lots everywhere) or the bank.  It is not a good idea to change at reception desks in hotels or when paying in restaurants or shops as you will not get the bank rate.
Bills used are 25pt, 50pt, £1, £5, £10, £20, £50, £100 and £200.
Credit Cards
Visa and Mastercard are accepted in most hotels and restaurants but because of the high fees charged for processing the cards most businesses prefer to be paid in cash.  Where cards are accepted it is normal for the customer to pay the bank processing fee.  Since there is a culture of price competitiveness and bargaining in Egypt, shops, hotels, restaurants etc do not factor in credit card charges to the prices they quote.
ATM machines are in all the major hotels and outside banks in the major towns in Egypt.  Putting your money into your credit/debit card before you come and drawing it out at the ATM’s is a good idea if you are worried about losing it.
With a climate that offers nothing but relentlessly hot and sunny weather all year round, Cairo is an ideal location if you want some serious sun on the winter.
While the heat can get almost unbearably hot during the summer, by the winter, the temperatures drop just enough to make the climate more pleasant and enjoyable, this is one of the most attractive times of the year to visit the city.
The average daily temperature during December in Cairo is 15oC (59oF). This can reach highs of 20oC (68oF) or drop to lows of 10oC (50oF). Cairo sees an average of 5 mm over 4 days of rain during this month, with 8 hours of sunshine per day at this time of the year.
Transportation and Moving In Cairo
Cairo International Airport is the busiest in Egypt and serves as the primary hub for EgyptAir, EgyptAir Express and Nile Air as well as several other airlines. The airport is located in Heliopolis, to the northeast of the Cairo around 15 kilometers (9.3 mi) from the business area of the city and has an area of approximately 37 square kilometers (14 sq. mi).
Airport transfer:
Cairo airport shuttle bus, it is comfortable, prompt and direct from or to the airport according to your own preference, the latest fleet of vehicles is vast in terms of space and air-conditioned.
By bus:
There is a public bus system that offers several lines of service at different prices. There is the standard full-sized bus service run by the Cairo Transport Authority (1 LE), and minibuses run by companies subcontracted by the government (2 LE).
By microbus:
Egyptian share cabs are generally known as microbus. Microbuses are licensed by each governorate as taxicabs, and are generally operated privately by their drivers. Although each governorate attempts to maintain a consistent paint scheme for them, in practice the color of them varies wildly, as the "consistent" schemes have changed from time to time and many drivers have not bothered to repaint their cars. The Microbuses are the cheapest form of transport in Cairo, yet not very reliable.
Rates vary depending on distance traveled, although these rates are generally well known to those riding the microbus. The fares also depend on the city. Riders can typically hail microbuses from any point along the route, often with well-established hand signals indicating the prospective rider's destination, although certain areas tend to be well-known microbus stops.
By train:
Ramses Railway Station, also called Misr Station is the main railway station of Cairo, Egypt. Facilities in the station include a left luggage office, a post office, ATMs, a pharmacy and a tourist information office.
The railway station has also a connection to Cairo Metro Lines 1 and 2 via the nearby "Al-Shohadaa/Martyrs" Station; Cairo Trams, city buses, microbuses, and Cairo taxis are also available.
By metro:
The subway system, officially called "Metro", is a fast and efficient way of getting around Cairo. Metro network covers Helwan and other suburbs. It can get very crowded during rush hour. Two train cars (the fourth and fifth ones) are reserved for women only, although women may ride in any car they want. The Cairo Metro has 61 stations (mostly At-grade), of which 3 are transfer stations, with a total length of 77.9 kilometers (48.4 mi). The system consists of three operational lines numbered from 1 to 3.
Cairo traffic is known to be overwhelming and overcrowded. Traffic moves at a relatively fluid pace. Drivers tend to be aggressive, but are more courteous at junctions, taking turns going, with police aiding in traffic control of some congested areas.